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A surname is a name borne hereditarily by all members of a family in male-line descent. In Anglo~Saxon times people had personal names only, even when they were known by an additional 'to-name' (e.g. Edmund Ironsides).

Hereditary surnames were first introduced into England by some of the leading followers of the Conqueror, and most were derived from the place-names of their estates, either in France or England. The custom began in the late 12th century and spread slowly with the South of England leading the way. By 1400 three- quarters of the population are reckoned to have borne hereditary family names and the process was complete by 1450. Surnames had five main origins : place names, location of abode, occupations, nicknames and patronymics (derived from the personal name or occupation of a person's father, or more rarely mother or relative e.g. Smithson, Fitzwalter).

Surname Historical Information

c1248 - Richard le Walkere, Warwickshire
1260 - Robert le Walker, Assizes York ­Old Englishe wealcer 'fuller'

The name was originally an occupational one for a 'fuller', that is for a person who 'fulled'(beat or pressed), cloth by treading on it of walking over it. See also FULLER. The raw cloth had to be fulled, i.e. scoured and thickened by beating it in water. In Medieval English Walker belongs to the North and West whilst Fuller is to the South and East. The French form of Fuller occurs in the whole of England and is often a translation of Walker

ELLINGHAM ELLING, ELLINGHAM & Anglo Saxon 'Estate of Ella's people'
1086 Domesday Book - Ellingham, Norfolk.
1130 - village of Ellingham in Northumberland, just off the A1 between Bamburgh Castle and Alnwick
1191 - Geoffrey de Elingham, Pipe Rolls Norfolk
1242 - Magna Ellingham and Parva Ellingham (Great and Little)
1287-8 - Gilbert de Elingham, Norwich Leet.
1400 - John Elyngeham, assizes Lancashire. Norfolk still has some Ellinghams recorded as living there and the surname was recorded their in the Leet Rolls in Norwich 1288 - 1350.
There is also a third village of Ellingham in Hampshire, north of Ringwood.
PRESTT Priest, Preist,Prest, Prestt,Press and Prust
963 - AElsfige Preost, Old English Bynames, Hertfordshire
1066 - Asci Preost, Domesday Book, Norfolk
1176 and 1188 - Baldwin, Robert Prest, Pipe Rolls Lincolnshire & Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk
1243 - Robert le Prest, Assizes Somerset
1279 - Henry Prust, Oxfordshire
1296 - Robert le Preest, Subsidy Rolls, Sussex 1327ib - Hugh le Priest, John le Preost, Subsidy Rolls Somerset
1332 - Walter Preyst, Subsidy Rolls Sussex
1353 - Simon Le Prust, Assizes Staffordshire {From PRIEST, English nickname from Medieval English, minister of the church. It may also have been an occupational name for someone in the service of a priest and occasionally it may have been used to denote someone suspected of being the son of a priest. Also may have been used for one of priestly appearance or behaviouror, no doubt, one of a most unpriestly character  
BARLOW 1260 - Thomas de Barlowe, Assizes Lancashire
1379 - John de Berlowe, Poll Tax Yorkshire
1509 - Margery Barley of Barlow, Derbyshire & William Barlee or Barlowe, Essex, English habitation name from any of several places so called, especially those in Derbyshire, Lancashire and West Riding of Yorkshire. The former gets its name from Old English bere Barley + hlaw Hill. the latter probably has its first element the derived adjective Beren or the cpd Bere-aern Barn. There is also a place of this name in Derbyshire, so called from Old English Bar Boar or boer Barley+leah Wood, clearing and one in Shropshire, which is from boer, Barley (a bygone of Bere ; Barcroft and Barden. Variations Barlee or Barleyman  
GURNEY 1086 - Hugo de Gurnai, Domesday Book, Essex and Somerset
1196 - Adam de Gurnay, Pipe Rolls Northamptonshire From Gournaien-Brai (Seine-Inferieure)
ROBINSON Robinson, Robison
1324 & 1332 - John, Richard Robynson, Wakefield Yorkshire & Subsidy Rollls Lancashire
1379 - Thomas Robyson, Poll Tax York 1426 - John Robynson, Scotland 1446ib - Donald Robison, Robertson Usually son of Robin
BRINKLOW Brinklow, Brinkler
1190 - William de Brinkelawa, Pipe Rolls York ­From Brinklow in Warwickshire
ELLIOTT Eliot, Eliott, Elliot, Elliott
12th century - Heliot de Siohebi, Lincolnshire
1188 - Elyot, Bury Suffolk
1257 - William Elyot, Assizes Somerset
1327 - William Eliot, Subsidy Rolls Sussex; A diminutive of Elias, from Old French Elie and Elieot. The frequency of these is due partly to the absorption of some Old English. The Scottish variant appears as Elwald or Elwold until the end of the 15th century. This is from Old English, AElfweald 'elf ruler', coming from Elewald
1279 Cumberland, Scotland
HORTON 1018 - Leofwine Godwines sunu at Hortune
1160-80 - Alan de Hortun, Yorkshire
1255 - Richard de Horton, Northamptonshire
1334-5 - William Hortone, Subsidy Rolls Kent.From one or other of the many places of this name. pational name for someone in the service of a priest and occasionally it may have been used to denote someone suspected of being the son of a priest. Also may have been used for one of priestly appearance or behaviouror, no doubt, one of a most unpriestly character  
ATWELL Attwill, Attwool, Attwooll, Atwell, Atwill, Atwool, Attawell, Attewell, Attewill, Attiwill. ­
1274 - Gilbert Attewell, Essex
1333 - Richard atte Wille.
Devonshire, Dweller by the stream or spring. Old English, wiella. Atwill is a Devon and Somerset form. Attwool a Dorset onen variation Wooll
RAWSON Rawson,Rawsen
Son of Ralf
1379 - William Raufsen, John Rauson, Richard Raweson, Poll Tax Returns